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China's "most tulou" is actually in Chaoshan

Time:2023-03-30 11:35:08 author:honeymoon Read:417次
China's "most tulou" is actually in Chaoshan

Photography/Xu Shiyi When talking about tulou, the labels that people often think of are Fujian and Hakka. However, what is less well-known is that there are also a large number of earthen buildings in the Chaoshan area of ​​Guangdong, which is known as "the corner of the country at the end of the province". They're understated, with little publicity, and at the same time colorful, with a strong local identity and a fun mash-up. In-depth exploration of the "lost realm" of this ancient dwelling has also opened the door of culture and history between Chaoshan mountains and seas from a new perspective. Lesser-known and wonderful, China's "best tulou" actually mentions tulou in Chaoshan, Yongding tulou in western Fujian, and Zhangzhou in southern Fujian's "Tianluokeng, four dishes and one soup" tulou group are well-known. This special architectural model seems to be the "Patents" and ideas that are unique to Fujian or Hakka people. However, the splendor of Chaoshan Tulou is not lost to Fujian to a certain extent. The tulou in the Chaoshan area is the westernmost piece of the "puzzle" in the distribution of Chinese tulou. In the ancient years, the seeds of the tulou were brought by immigrants and sowed on the land of Chaoshan. Under the nourishment of local nature and culture, different flowers and customs bloomed. There are the largest existing octagonal tulou and oval tulou in China. The most western and southernmost tulou in China are also located in the Chaoshan area. The Zhenfu Building in Shangrao Town, Chaozhou, has a north-south long axis of about 98 meters and an east-west short axis length of 90 meters. Although the Qingyang Building beside it can be regarded as a large earth building, it also looks petite against the backdrop of the huge Zhenfu Building. How many earth buildings are there in Chaoshan? According to local chronicles, the construction of earth buildings in Chaoshan area began in the Yuan Dynasty and flourished in the Ming and Qing dynasties. So far, there is a total of about 700 years of construction history. The Sifang Building in Raoping was built in the first year of Yuanhuangqing (1312), and the Yangchun Building (destroyed) was built in the seventh year of Yuanyanyou (1320), more than a hundred years earlier than Raoping County. The latest circular tulou in Xukeng Village, Shangrao Town was built in 1981 and is a "post-80s generation" in the tulou industry. The number of tulou in Chaoshan area is also astonishing, especially in Raoping County, Chaozhou. According to the records of "Raoping County Chronicle (1979-2005)", in the territory of only one county, in the late 1970s, there were traces of tulou buildings. There are 781 seats. According to incomplete estimates, there should have been more than 1,000 tulou in the entire Chaoshan area in history, accounting for nearly 30% of the total number of tulou in the country. In recent decades, due to many collapses and damages, the number of existing earth buildings is about 500. The picture below is a satellite map of Changbin Village in Xinxu Town, Raoping, Chaozhou in 2006. Changbin Village has 18 earthen buildings built in Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, which are different and interesting. Among them, the oldest tulou was built in the Yuan Dynasty, more than a hundred years earlier than Raopingzhi County. Several villages near Changbin Village also have their own Tulou groups. More than ten years have passed, due to lack of maintenance, many of the earth buildings in the satellite image have been broken and collapsed. Alternative "Tulou": "The Land of Lost" has a different style, Chaozhou Raoping Xiecheng Building. After the original tulou collapsed more than ten years ago, residents built a reinforced concrete "new tulou" on the original site. . Although Chaoshan tulou also live in groups, they are basically divided into strict households, that is, a tulou is made up of many units and has its own homestead. The new building was built piece by piece on the original homestead. Under the joint coordination of the village clans, the layout of the new houses is unified. For those who build houses later, a "cake-cut" land space is strictly reserved for them, waiting for them to join this new "tulou" home. According to common sense, the traditional tulou layout is not comfortable and convenient to live in. However, the architectural regulations and style of this new building are under the joint constraints of strong ethics, feng shui and clan elders, that is, "country talkers". Strictly kept the same, forming a wonderful alternative "tulou", all the original residents have given enough respect, understanding and acceptance to the harmony, rules and interests of the public space of the ethnic group. There are still many "tulou" buildings in Chaoshan area that have undergone an overall update, such as Xiecheng Building. A Chaoshan cultural scholar told me that the formation of such a new school of "tulou" is not only related to the distribution of the original homestead, but also has a strong reverence for the ancestors of the Chaoshan people. The custom of not selling ancestral property is also related to changing the pattern. Perhaps because of its remote location and little known, the tulou groups in Chaoshan are hardly touristic. The picture below shows the Lixiu Building in Nanlian Village, Sanrao Town, Raoping County, Chaozhou. The walls are grayed and called gray buildings by the locals. The building uses many decorative techniques with local Chaoshan style, such as five-element gables, Chaozhou wood carvings, inlaid porcelain, etc. It can be described as a typical representative of the "Chaoshan school" of tulou. Hundreds of people lived in this tulou at its peak, but now the number of residents has been greatly reduced, and most of them are old people with gray hair. Compared with Fujian tulou, the protection of tulou in Chaoshan area is relatively weak. However, perhaps because of its remote location and little-known, the tulou groups in Chaoshan are hardly touristic. Among the inhabited tulou, the most simple life scenes are still maintained. From time to time, villagers push bicycles and carry farm implements in and out. Various dry vegetables are dried in the open space in the building, yellow dogs take a leisurely nap under the eaves, and hens with chicks are strolling in the open space. It is a leisurely pastoral scene. In Fujian, tulou, as a dazzling cultural business card and world heritage, are often strictly protected by regulations as "architectural cultural relics". On the one hand, it protects the ancient tulou, and on the other hand, it also isolates the contemporary shaping of the tulou by the natural flow of folk forces. In the Chaoshan area, because of the "not taken seriously" of the tulou group, the 700-year-old "construction" of tulou has continued in another way since the Yuan Dynasty. This article is excerpted from the July 2022 article of "China National Geographic": "A Piece of the Lost Puzzle of the Tulou "Chaoshan School" and "Shenwei Guojiao"" written by Xianzhang Su Run Photography / Zheng Jian and other responsible editors / Chen Jinghong photo editor / To read the full text of Wu Jing, please click the picture below to buy the magazine ▼ Back to the world to write / Shan Zhiqiang Photography / Sunflower Deer Zunyi, Guiyang "Shuanglonghui" discovered the wonder of Guizhou "Underground Yellow Dragon" / Tian Zhiheng Photography / Zhao Jieyu and other Tulou "Chaoshan" A piece of the missing puzzle piece of "Shenwei Guojiao" written by Xianzhang Su Run / Zheng Jian and other deep-sea exploration and interpretation of the earth's code in the deep sea / Photo courtesy of Wang Jianing and Zhang Guoliang / Outside the summit of Mount Everest, Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences Story by Hongli Photography/Liu Zheng et al. There are valuable and underrated Tibetan cave buildings in Ali, Tibet. / What little-known beauty is hidden in the depths of the famous snow-capped mountains in the southwest of Meili, such as Daniel Winkler? Written by / Bai Jikai Photography / Su Guanming and other iron branch puppet shows come from Chaoshan, where are they going? Written by / Li Juntian Photography / Wu Wenchao, etc. Click here to buy WeChat Editor: Jackie Design: Weiwei When the topic mentions Chaoshan, what do you think of? January 2022丨Jiangsu album "Top" February 2022丨Jiangsu album "Down" March 2022丨India's "Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen" April 2022丨Hexi Corridor "Western Legend"May 2022丨The Land of the Earth "Eye" June 2022 丨 Appreciating the Clouds in Northwest Yunnan


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