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Why is there a Guandi Temple in Dingri County, Tibet? Its origin is due to a highlight moment of Qianlong

Time:2023-02-04 00:16:03 author:Vacation Read:981次
Why is there a Guandi Temple in Dingri County, Tibet? Its origin is due to a highlight moment of Qianlong

Dingri County in Shigatse, Tibet is a very remote but very famous place. Many people who travel to Tibet have left some good memories here. This is because half of the world's highest peak, Mount Everest, is located in Tingri County. Our country's mountaineering heroes have created one miracle after another in Tingri County. Although ordinary tourists do not climb mountains, they also want to see the true face of Mount Everest up close. The county seat of Tingri County is not next to National Highway 318, but in Xiegel Town, about 5 kilometers west of the National Highway. Xiegel Town has not always been the county seat. In 1961 (when Dingri County was just established for two years), the county seat was moved from Xiegel Town to Gangga Town. After Gangga was the county seat for seven years, the county government moved back to Xiegel. As a result, Gangga became the old county seat of Dingri County. Many tourists who have walked through 318 and 219 will definitely be impressed by Gangga. There is a hill next to Gangga Town called Gangga Mountain. The mountain is really small, even at a height of 4000 meters, it is not too tiring to walk up the mountain. Gangga Mountain is an ideal place for viewing the sixth highest peak in the world, Cho Oyu Peak. Standing on the top of the mountain and looking south, the jade peaks are laid out across the landscape. In addition, you can also see Mount Everest here. Although this location is not very good to see Mount Everest (Mount Everest is blocked by nearby peaks, only half of it can be seen), but the advantage is cheap: the cost of entering the Mount Everest scenic spot is almost a thousand less, and it is free here. On the top of Gangga Mountain, stands a splendid temple. Many people who come from afar may think it is a Buddhist temple, because almost all the magnificent buildings in Tibet are Buddhist temples. But this temple is really not a Buddhist temple, it is a Guan-di- temple! This Guandi Temple, named "Qomolangma Guandi Temple", is the highest Guandi Temple in the world (about 4390 meters above sea level on the top of Gangga Mountain). In fact, if you look closely at the style of this building, you will find its special features: although it also has elements of traditional Tibetan architecture, it is undoubtedly more like the classical architecture in the mainland. However, when I visited the temple, its gate was deeply closed, so I did not see the inside of the main hall. Not sure if it's because I'm not lucky enough. Many people do not understand: this is located in the depths of Tibet, it is not a place where Chinese and Tibetan cultures meet, and there are basically no Han people living around. Why is there a Guandi Temple here? The origin of this temple is due to an expedition of the Qing army more than 200 years ago. In the 53rd year of Qianlong (1788 AD), the Gurkha Dynasty (a dynasty in Nepalese history), under the instigation of Shamarpa, a traitor in Tibet, sent 3,000 troops to invade Tibet and occupied Jilong on the grounds that the taxation of Tibet was too heavy. , Nyalam, Tsongka and other places. The Qing government immediately mobilized its troops to fight back. However, a group of local officials at that time negotiated peace with the invaders without telling the Qing government, and promised to exchange 15,000 taels of annual coins in exchange for the Gurkhas retreating. Afterwards, this group of people lied to the court that they had defeated the enemy army and made a victory. Later, when the fraud was leaked, the Qing court punished and replaced officials stationed in Tibet and Tibetan political and religious leaders. Two years later, the Gurkhas asked for silver taels, but Tibetan monks and lay officials refused. The following year, the Gurkhas invaded Tibet again, retreating to the border areas after looting the Tashilhunpo Monastery. Subsequently, under the leadership of Emperor Qianlong, the Qing Dynasty began to gather troops and prepare to counterattack. The Governor of Guangdong and Guangxi, the famous general of the Qing Dynasty, Fukang'an, was the commander-in-chief of the fight against the aggression. When Fukangan dispatched troops, the Sichuan army led by the Sichuan Admiral Chengde had arrived at the battlefield and defeated the Kuo army many times until Nyalam was recovered. Not long after the Sichuan army recaptured Nyalam, the Fukang Security Department arrived in Tingri to join the Sichuan army. Afterwards, the Qing army gradually conquered the Kuo army stronghold and regained all the lost territory in Tibet. Immediately afterwards, the Qing army descended along the Jilong River and entered the territory of Gurkha, approaching the capital of Gurkha, so that the king could escape from the capital. Subsequently, the Gurkhas returned the captured and detained Tibetan, Han and Manchu officers and soldiers, monks and laymen, and sent envoys to surrender. The Qing Dynasty proposed the terms of the negotiation, such as returning the property of the Tashilhunpo Monastery looted, handing over the Tibetan traitor, and abolishing the aforementioned privately concluded indemnity agreement, etc., but the Kuo side did not reply. So the two sides went to war again, and the winners and losers were each other, but in general, the Qing army conquered the city and made the Gurkha in danger of destroying the country. Soon, the Gurkhas once again asked to surrender and returned the stolen property and Shamarpa’s ashes (doubtful, the Gurkhas said that he was dead, and Fukangan asked for the body; the Gurkhas also said that he had been cremated, so he to return the ashes). At this time, the Qing army was in a very difficult situation because the weather, geographical advantages, and people did not account for it, so they were surrendered. After receiving the report from Fu Kangan, Emperor Qianlong ordered the canonization of the king of Nepal and the demarcation of the border between the two countries. Since then, Gurkha has become a vassal of the Qing Dynasty, and has been called subject to tribute until 1908. During this year, Nepal was controlled by the British, which severed its ties with the Qing government. This battle was also one of the highlights of Qianlong's life. At the age of 82, Qianlong's self-written "Shiquan Ji" listed this military exploit as one of the "Shiquan martial arts". At that time, some of the defeated Gurkhas failed to return to China in time and had been struggling to survive on the Sino-Nepalese border. The descendants of these people, the Daman people, have been accepted neither by China nor by Nepal for a long time. Until 2003, the Chinese government decided to grant them Chinese nationality and give them a lot of economic assistance, so that they can live a happy new life. After the victory, the Qing army believed that Emperor Guan had blessed them with continuous battles and victories, so they built the Temple of Emperor Guan on Gangga Mountain in Dingri. Originally, only the soldiers of the Qing army came to worship, and later their relatives and the surrounding Tibetans also came to worship. Later, the Guandi Temple was presided over by a lama. It is a pity that this Guandi Temple was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution, and the existing temple was rebuilt in 2018. There used to be more than a dozen Guandi temples in Tibet, most of which were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. The Everest Guandi Temple has both Han and Tibetan architectural styles, with a hard mountain-style roof, red walls and white tiles, with a construction area of ​​8,800 square meters. In the main hall, both Wu Sheng Guan Yu and King Gesar (also Guan Ping and Zhou Cang on both sides of Guan Yu) are enshrined. In fact, Guandi belief has entered the life and religion of Tibetans. Tibetans believe that Guan Yu's image and experience are very similar to King Gesar. Guan Yu is the incarnation of King Gesar, so they are worshipped together, which is also a common feature of the Guandi Temple in Tibet. The above is the origin of Tingri Everest Guandi Temple. It can be said that it is a historical witness to the period when the three nationalities of Tibet, Manchu and Han worked together to resist external aggressors and defend the territorial integrity of the motherland, as well as a witness to the integration of Chinese and Tibetan cultures.


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